Sack Trick – band feat members of Rachel Stamp, David Ryder-Prangley (bass,voc), Robin Guy (drms). More info req’d.
Sack of Spastics – Bargoed band (1980s), feat; Gerwyn Williams (see also Discarnate Entity, Rico Oxide)
Said Mike – Pontypridd band (c2006) who are too fat for emo!, feat; Tom (voc,gtr), Dane (drms), Richard (gtr), Lloyd (bass), Rhys-o (keys). Played a huge amount of gigs in autumn06, also involved with Complete Control music. Rel EP ‘Stop The Clocks’ (Jan08) (website)
Sal – Cardiff based band, formedium Nov98, feat; Catrin Southall (voc), Noog (gtr), Marc Real (bass), Denley Slade (drms). Matthew Narusberg was orig bassist. Have played around S.Wales, Rel ‘Before Tomorrow’ EP (Aug00) & made apps on The Wrap, Shotgun Slideshow & The Fizz. Rel single Perfect in 2 formats (English & Welsh) Nov02. Followed by LP ‘Dysfunctional’ (Casket Recs Jul05) and single Runaway (Jul05), a long period of inactivity was ended with a new LP release (spring 09) and the track Devil May Care was used as the theme for the new James Bond audio book (website)
Salad Days – post punk / math rock band from Swansea (formedium Nov99). Feat Kristopher Green (gtr,voc), Edward Purcell (bass,voc) and Ben Leach (drms). 1st demo CD, Nuthin’ Fancy, rec with the help of the Prince’s Trust. 2nd CD, Irimi, rec at Swansea’s Mighty Atom studio, c2002. Band call themselves “the cutting edge of ‘British Emotional Hardcore Punk'”
Ruby Samba – singer / songwriter from Cardiff (c2009), born 1988, with her father, Tim Short supplying guitar and production work. (website)
Sammo Hung – Cardiff based band (2000) feat; Jemma Roper (gtr,voc), Iestyn Lloyd (gtr,voc), Andrew Coombes (bass), Richard Davies (drms). Rel single on Boobytrap recs & have app on Adam Walton‘s Radio Wales show. Have played with Rocket From The Crypt (teaching San Diego’s finest the finer points of the Welsh language ie swearing!). More info req’d.
Samurai – Port Talbot-Merthyr rock band (1982-86), feat; Len Williams (voc), Craig Risdale (gtr), Huw Lewis (gtr), Neil Rodgers (bass), Mike Davies (drms). Rel 2 LPs on Ebony Recs. Toured extensively in the UK and did a club tour of Los Angeles.
Sanction – Caerphilly band; (formedium Oct00) feat; Kris (voc), Gavin (gtr), Phil (bass), Andrew (drms) (joined Oct02 replacing Gareth). Another Gareth had temp replaced Gavin (Jul04-Mar05). (website)
Sassafras – Cardiff prog band, formedium 1970 orig as a 3-piece feat; Ralph Evans (gtr), Ricky John Holt (bass), Rob Reynolds (drms). Dai Shell (gtr) was soon added. Terry Bennett (voc) joined after recording at Dai’s Ddraig Studios. The band turned pro and Rob left, being replaced by Congo Jones (drms) (ex Love Sculpture). Rel LP ‘Expecting Company’ (Polydor Oct73) and rec’d plenty of BBC airplay. Congo left and Chris Sharley took his place and Steve Finn replaced Ricky, although members would leave and rejoin many times over the years. Rel LP ‘Wheelin And Dealin’ (Chrysalis 1974) and toured USA, sometimes supporting Fleetwood Mac in front of 75,000 people. Rel LP ‘Riding High’ (Chrysalis 1975) with Dick Owen (drms) and became one the first bands to tour the old Eastern Bloc. Conitnued through the years eventually splitting in 1996, but still reform for occasional gigs.
Saturday’s Kids – band (c2010); Sion, Rhys, Jordan and Matt (website)
Scanners – band (1980) formedium out of the ashes of Victimize feat; Bryn Merrick (bass) (later of The Damned), Andy Johnson (gtr), Roman Jugg (keys) (later Damned), Trevor Rees (drms). Also played under name Carburettors
Schafer – trashy pop-punk Newport band (2001), feat; Marcus Warner (voc) (later of Colour Me Dead, Trip), Adam Treheme (gtr), Neil Weir (bass), Graeme Pearce (drms). Described as ‘Ash, but angrier, or King Adora without the lipgloss!’ Changed name & style to Please Drive Faster (Sep02)
The School – Cardiff indie-pop band, feat Liz – (keys,voc), Ryan (bass), Rich (drms), Ceri (gtr,voc), Steph (violn,voc), Harri (gtr,perc), Colin (trmpt) had session on Adam Walton’s BBC Radio Wales Show (Apr09). Fran and Kay also appear with the band. Toured Europe in 2008. Rel single Let It Slip. Followed by And Suddenly (Slumberland Jul09). Album ‘Loveless Unbeliever’ (rel 15.2.10), 2nd LP ‘Reading Too Much Into Things Like Everything’ (Elefant Recs). Sessions for Marc Riley and Tom Robinson on 6Music, Radio 1 Session in Wales. Played at Latitude, Wychwood, Swn, Indietracks, London Popfest, Going Up The Country, Now We Are Weekender and Wales Goes Pop! festivals in the UK, as well as South Pop, Lemon Pop, Murcia Popfest, Contempopranea and Murcia Sound in Spain, and NYC Popfest. They’ve also toured Sweden, Italy, Spain, the USA and the UK several times. 4th LP ‘Wasting Away and Wondering’ (04.09.15 Elefant). (website)
Science Bastard – Newport band (c2011), feat; Dean Poole (drms), Jonny (gtr,voc), Vern (voc,keys), Jim (bass)
Scimitar – 1982-1983, Abergavenny-Newport sorta NWOBHM meets punk, feat; Trevor Molten (voc) (later Deja Vu), John Dimbylow (gtr), Stuart Silcox (drms), Wayne Morgan (bass). Rec track for Hull’s Ebony Recs for the “Metallic Storm” comp album (which incl Mercyful Fate’s Black Funeral -which was utter pants IMHO). First band to play El Sieco’s (TJs to anyone under 40) after convincing Johnny S they would be playing hits of the 60s and auditioning with House of the Rising Sun. Had enough mates at the gig to make Sunday profitable for JS so got another gig on the Thursday this time getting paid £60.
Scooters – Cardiff band (formedium 1996), feat; Anthony Carey (voc,gtr), Chris Kelly (gtr,voc), Bob Molcher (bass), Timothy Rooney (drms), Simon Rooney (keys). Signed to Gate Productions management until spring’99 but continued to play as much in California as they did the UK which incl jamming with Jeff Goldblum in his house & playing at Johnny Depp’s club. Debut LP ‘Peepshow’ followed by 2nd LP ‘I Can See Your House From Here’ on FF Vinyl. (website)
Screaming Martini’s – Newport rock band (c2012), feat; Vinnie Fiera (listen)
Screen Gemz – early Cardiff punk band (late 70s), feat; Karl Hyde & Rick Smith (both later of Freur & Underworld). They met in a Cardiff hard rock-style cafe, where Karl was a chef, Rick washed dishes, and starving musicians knew the two would feed them when they showed up at the kitchens’ back door. Rel a single I Just Can’t Stand Cars / Teenage Teenage (1979 Inflatable recs). Rick wasn’t in the band when this was rel. More info req’d.
Screw – Cardiff band (1970-71), feat; Dave Dearnaley (gtr) (now Snatch It Back and sessions for Alien Sex Fiend), John Turner (drms), Andy Beever (gtr), Ged Cox (bass), Bob Watkins (keys). Did 3mnth tour through Belgium, Germany and Switzerland – and did backing for the late and great Mike Patto band in Shweinfurt. Dave makes his own guitars in Splott, Cardiff and John does the electrical repairs. Their roadie, Ron says, ‘Shame no recordings were ever made – but album names conceived – Screw Theassophit, Screw-u-2 etc.’ Some members went on to form Eager Beavers
Scrhythm – comic from Cardiff (c1993) filled with loot, lager, lust & luggage. Edited by Tommy. More info req’d.
Sebon – online music shop selling all the important Welsh (and others) releases in Wales today (website)
Secluded – punk band, rel ‘Mindless Violence’ tape (1982). More info req’d.
Section 20 – Cardiff punk band, 1979-80, feat; Roddy Moreno (gtr) (later Oppressed, Insanity Squad), Michael ‘Jarvis’ Davies (bass), Robin Shackle (drms), David ‘Dio’ Dyer (voc). Started jamming in a Butetown bank, played about half a dozen gigs in Cardiff and fell apart when Roddy got jailed in 1980. The band got it’s name from one of the charges that Roddy eventually went down for. No recordings.
See Monkey Do Monkey – record label based in Cardiff and home to The Method, Houdini Dax, The Keys, The Broken Vinyl Club and The Moles. (website)
Semantics – band (formedium 1997), and included many personnel changes, Oct06 line up; Andy Coleman (voc,gtr) (ex Dozy), Alan Rogers (bass), Bill Henry (drms), Kim Styles (gtr). Rel LP “Between The Covers” (2004) incl guest appearances by Hywel Maggs (gtr), Richie Jones (gtr) and Dave Watkins (drms). Next LP “The Ballad Of Squint Eyed Jack” 2006 incl Danny Chang (ex Dozy), Richie Jones and the Impact Gospel Singers.
Serein – record label run by Huw Roberts (of Nest, Hidden Rivers), started in 2005 and specializes in ambient crossover stuff. Their output is frequently used in TV and film productions, regularly receives international radio airplay. (website)
Serotonin – band formed in Aberdare mid02, rel 3 trk demo funded via the PYNCI label. This demo was rec at Monnow Valley studios.
Serotonin – punk band from Llanfair Caereinion, (formed Oct02), orig called Fly 4 Zero. Rel LP ‘The Rise of Falling’ (on their own Alka Salts label, Jan05) (website)
Serphona – orig name for Enclave
Set It Off – promo co. run by David Taylor at end of ’99. (website) More info req’d.
Seven Words – Aberystwyth band (2002), feat Dai Williams (gtr,voc), Jon Swain (gtr,voc), Richard Stott (bass,voc), ‘Camp’ Jon (gtr), Matt Allen (drms) and Timothy Crag (keys) – infl are Radiohead, the Smiths, and REM. One EP ‘How To Draw Anything’ has been rel with another one ‘Happy Here’ due soon. (website)
Seven Year Itch – (formed 1983 and split two years later in 1985). Orig members, Liza Thomas (voc), Dave Inson (gtr), Steve Lane (bass), Mike Penny (drms). Influences included Paul Weller / Style Council, with the band performing mostly orig material written by Dave. Rec 4track EP at Minotawr Studios – Gwaun-Cae-Guewen, the most well know being titled: Michael, Your Goes In Style, written about former Swansea Sound presenter, Mike Evans. Studio rec featured a brass section in the form of Jacqueline Boxx and Jayne Morgan, both former musicians with Swansea Youth Orchestra. One of their break-through performances was supporting Swansea’s Tremblin’ Knees, at the Coach House on Halloween Night in 1984, to a packed audience which included many know faces. It was said to be once of the best sets seen at the venue! Today (2016) two members of the band are still around, these being Dave Inson, who still lives in Penllergaer – Swansea, and bassist Steve Lane, who has not long returned to live in the city.
Sewer Youth – Cardiff punk band feat; Jason “Pipeman” Stickler (Effigies, Some Weird Sin, The Weird), more info req’d
Shadow of The Sun – band (c2012). More info req’d
Shakin’ Stevens and the Sunsets – (1971 – Date), Elvis Presley style rock band from Penarth still performing today as the Sunsets, without Shakey (Michael Barrett) who went to London, first to become Elvis Presley in the West End stage show and later a chart topping teen idol in his own right.
Shamones – Ramones tribute band from Cardiff (c2012) feat; Bryn Merrick (bass) (ex Damned, Victimize)
Shanghai – rock band (1980s), feat; Mark Davies (bass) (ex Traveller, later Celtic Pride)
Shaped By Fate – Cardiff punk-metal band (formedium late 2001). (website)
Shape Records – label ran from Monthermer Rd, Cardiff, primarily set up to release stuff by Attack & Defend, but started adding others to their catalogue, Them Squirrels, Evils, Frederick Stanley Star (website)
Shemko – Cardiff band (orig from Llantrisant), formedium 2001, feat; Andrew Hadland (b.1977) (voc,gtr), Stuart Beasley (b.1978) (gtr), Geraint Rees (b.1978) (bass), Mark George (b.1978) (drms). Prev called Mothers Ruin, Unreal Things. (website)
She Ripped – Treorchy post-punk band (c2012), feat; Rhodri Cox (gtr), Tom Williams (bass), Jake Healy (voc,gtr), Dr. Rhythm (drms). Rel single Ultra Social Happy Man (website)
She’s Got Spies – Cardiff project by ex Keys members Laura Nunez (voc), Matthew Evans (gtr,keys,perc). (website)
Shockhead – Cardiff space-rock band, orig feat; Crum (keys,voc) (later Moonloonies), Sqwab (gtr,keys,voc), Mr B (voc), Rhys (bass), Cozmo (drms) (now living in the Swiss Alps, but proudly with a Welsh flag flying over his house). Rhys was replaced by Mark Humphries, who in turn was replaced by Doug “Dr Drugless”. Sqwab (Chris Swambo) sadly died (Mar01), there was a reunion in 2005 in his honour to celebrate what would have been his 40th birthday, reuniting the band’ss founding members.
Shooter – Swansea indie band formedium summer 2000, feat; Simon Court (voc) (ex Spirals, Sweetest Ache), Peter Moore (gtr,bass,keys), Mark Royston (gtr), Stuart Vincent (gtr) (ex Sweetest Ache), Ian Saberton (keys) (ex Sweetest Ache), Steve Bugden (bass), Andy Kersey (drms). Session on Radio Wales (Aug02). Songs incl; All Things To Everyone. (website)
Shootin’ Goon – punk-skacore band from Cardiff/Pembrokeshire (formedium 1998), feat; Tom (also of Adequate 7), Matt (also Cheapskates), have had up to 20 band members at various times. LP Splotside Rocksteady on Moonska Recs. (website). Split Jun04.
Shortcuts – punk band (formedium Nov07), feat; Nicky Howells (voc,gtr) (ex Carsondown, BDTY), Boris (bass), Lewis (drms) (ex BDTY). Rel demo ‘Fuck The Shortcuts’ (Dec07) then debut LP ‘Happy Accidents’ (Numbskull Recs Mar09). (website)
Short Man Syndrome – band (c2008), feat the same members from previous Aberystwyth band Swiss Tony and The Vendors. Now based in Cardiff, started to get regular gigs in such venues as Buffalo bar and Clwb Ifor Bach. Recently added on the “watch this space” segment on the C2 radio wales site.
Shotgun Slideshow – music video prog that promotes English language bands from Wales on HTV. More info req’d.
Shrapnel – punk band of mid-late 80s, feat; Stew (voc), Paul (gtr), Steve (gtr) and Jeff (drms), there had been a few bassists. Played many gigs in UK & Eire, rel tape ‘Restricted Existance’ on Bluurg. 2 split singles, the 1st with Pontypridd punk band Symbol Of Freedom on Words Of Warning Recs and 2nd with Scottish band Toxik Effex. Plus a track on the `We Wont Be Your Fucking Poor` comp called Unjustified Actions After the demise of Shrapnel, Stew and Paul moved to London where they formedium a band called the Duvals. They rel at least one single and a CD called ‘Beauty’. Paul is currently playing guitar with Ten Benson, who have rel a few cds and quite recently played in America and did a tour with The Darkness. (ace pic)
Sick Future – promo company run by Johnny Philips from Bridgend, deals mainly in hardcore & metal material & promotes gigs in S.Wales. (website)
Sick Livers – South Wales garage rock and roll band formedium in late, feat; Ginge Knievil (voc) (ex Viva Knievils), Dai (bass), VJ (gtr), Matty (drms). Members from Cardiff, Briton Ferry, Bridgend and Cwmbran respectively and have previously played in the following South Wales bands: Black Eye Riot; The Viva Knievils; Strawberry Blondes; Shrapnel. Self released debut single “St. Pauli” recorded on 10th May 2009 at Zed One Studios, Camden Town. (website)
Sick Note – Cardiff based electronica project (c2008), feat; Doghouse, Flapsandwich, Dr Conker, P&O, The Filth. Rel ‘Holy Trinity’ EP (Tantrum Recs). (website)
Side FX – punk band (c1978), feat; Jonathon Griffiths (drms), (later Frames), Julian Kelly (gtr,voc).
The Sidneys – band (c1992) feat; Gary Appleby (drms) (later Blood Sanction, Distorshaus, 9xDead). More info req’d
Silent Partner – Chepstow based soft rock band. After the singer left, the bass player stepped up to the mark, one Grantl Nicholas (Feeder). Guitarist Brian Sperber left for America and became respected sound engineer/producer
Singapore – band feat; Dave Watkins (drms), Danny Chang (who now has a studio in Penarth)
Situations Vacant – From somewhere in darkest Sth Wales – Rel the cassette ‘The Shady Road Shed Tapes’ on Baby Is Dead Records
60’ Dolls – Newport band feat; Richard Parfitt (voc,gtr) (ex The Colours), Mike Cole (bass), Carl Bevan (drms). Formedium in early 90s thru the local music scene. 1st single Happy Shopper (94), earning them a great deal of mediumia attention & many more fans. Follow up singles, incl Pig Valentine, Stay & Talk To Me, revealed noted for excellent live performances that would end with a cover of The Beatles’ Everybody’s Got Something To Hide Except Me & My Monkey, typically followed by the smashing of their instruments. 1st LP ‘The Big 3’ made the Top 40 after rel in May 1997. In June they played to 36,000 people, opening for the reformedium Sex Pistols at London’s Finsbury Park. Indolent Recs sadly dropped them just before the rel of their 2nd LP ‘Joya Magica’. Disillusioned with the music industry, they split in 1999. Richard went on to manage Terris, before embarking on a rising solo career.
Size 8 – Newport record label. Rel Derrero’s debut single. More info req’d.
Skangers – Cardiff Indie pop, early ’90s feat: Chris Dickson (voc,gtr) (ex Crush, Cola Shark, www.christopherdickson.com), Adam Evans (drms), Darren Lewis (bass, backing voc) (ex Crush, Cola Shark), Mark Kiltie (gtr, bass, voc). An earlier lineup also featured Brendan O’Driscoll (keys, voc) and Tony Crosbie (drms)
Skeeterhouse – medium DIY label run from Cardiff, rel Carsondown‘s May Contain Traces of Punk Rock EP. More info req’d.
Skeleteens – Cardiff ‘supergroup’ band, feat members of Reptile Ranch, Puritan Guitars, New Form. Formedium as an acoustic busking band in order to finance a holiday in Paris but did support The Fall at Cardiff Uni 7.2.81. More info req’d
Skep – Cardiff band (2002) feat; Dai Lloyd (voc), Nathan Rosser (gtr), Adam Rosser (drms), Stuart Akkermans (bass). Rel Bingo EP on Dockrad (2001) & debut LP Static (26.08.02), followed by LP ‘Sgep’ (Dockrad 2008) and Dai had replaced the band by this LP with Matt Busuttil (bass), Steve Cox (gtr), Al Evans (drms) (website)
Skidmarks – Cardiff punk band (late 70s). More info req’d
Skindred – Newport ragga-metal band (formed 1998 after the split of Dub War), feat; Benji Webbe (voc), Jeff Rose (gtr), Daniel Pugsley (bass), Ginger Ford (drms). Played 1st gig 1999 in Newport. LP Babylon rel Jun02 accompanied by a UK tour. Played Ozzfest 2002. Benji Webb also guested on Soulfly’s debut LP.
SKWAD – Pontypridd band (formedium Oct03), feat; Todd Campbell (gtr) (also of Horse), Dane Campbell (drms) (sons of Motorhead’s Phil), and Mike Cox (bass). although it has not been updated in a long time. (website)
Chris Slade – rock drummer (real name Christopher Rees), born in Pontypridd 30.10.46. Had played with the likes of Tom Jones, Gary Numan, AC/DC, Uriah Heep, The Firm and Asia to name a few!
Slamfish – Cardiff project by Tim (ex Khagool) and Bex (who married each other 19.5.09).
Slaughter Tradition – Penarth-Dinas Powys anarcho-punk band (1982-85), feat; Nicky Evans (voc,gtr), Matt Davies (bass), Richard Thomas (gtr) Dean Poole (drms). Rec 2 demos, ‘Don’t Invite Death Before Its Time’ (1983) and ‘The Passion Revolt’(1984). Put on and played some memorable gigs in Penarth area incl Flux of Pink Indians, Chumbawamba and Kukl (Bjork’s first venture to the UK). Although keeping their ideals their music changed to almost pop. Nicky went on to form Elemental Recs (Alabama 3, Rocket from the Crypt), Matt runs Tangled Parrot record shop in Carmarthen and Dean plays in FromMars
Slavaryan – orig name for Porthcawl band Gene Loves Jezebel, namedium after a conflict of races; Slavs and Aryans.
The Sleep – band of late 80s. More info req’d
Sleeping Dogs – 10 part off the wall series on BBC Choice TV (Apr00) produced by Tom Law & feat the Mikey J Appreciation Society documentary. 2nd series aired Autumn 2000.
Sleepy Panda Club – Swansea indie-pop band (c2012) (myspace)
Sleever – Swansea punk band (c1979), feat; Graham Larkbey
Slime – Late 70’s Sth Wales based post punk band, 1st rel was a split single with NCP, ‘1st Takes/Foreign Affairs (NCP)’. This was followed by a single on Toadstool Recs ‘Controversial Looney’ in Apr78 GOOD-1. NCP was basically solo artist Bob Gillham who could best be described as experimental. Bob was based in Oswestry and self rel a vast amount of cassettes on Sanc Recs. Titles incl ‘After Being Burned’, ‘Goes Overdub Crazy’, ‘Limited Options’, and ‘Music For Llanfair’. Company motto ‘It’s not your ears – No Commercial Potential’
Slow Graffiti – Cardiff-based label (2002) & live promoter. Shows at Clwb Ifor Bach under the “Bridging The Gap” banner have attracted good crowds and some decent names, label’s 1st rel – Polanski’s “All Possibility” EP (22.7.02), followed by comp CD of local and up & coming bands (website)
Slowjam – punk band (1989) from Tremorfa, Cardiff, feat; Darren ‘The Flange’ D (bass,voc), Matt Gray (gtr) (ex Soldier Dolls, later Fenella Fielding, I Mobster), Ronald Bonham (drms), David Alderman (gtr,voc) (ex Blast Off, Animation, Soldier Dolls, later of I Mobster). Track Firewater appeared on Slaving For The Great Dictator comp. (discography)
Smack – band feat; Dave Watkins (drms)
Small Victories – band prev called Tommy & The Chauffeurs, feat; James Chant (voc), James Milford (voc,gtr), Jamie Beach (scratch DJ), Dave Cauvaine (bass), Ian Williams (drms), James Hannam (keys). Rel single (18.9.03) ‘Go Back To Bed America’ then LP ‘Holding On Hopefully’ (on Boobytrap Oct03). A tour was being put together to promote this.
Smiling Faeces – Neath based punk fanzine, edited by Slag (c1983)
Smiling With Semtex – Swansea punk-dub band (formedium 1999), feat; Justyn (voc) (ex Corrupt Silence, now Filthy Habits), Richy (bass) (also Corrupt Silence), Stu (gtr), Wez (drms). More info req’d
Smoke Like A Fish – Newtown based skapopunky 8-pc (formedium 1993), enjoyed a classic 3 years of magical manic gigs up and down the country until on-stage fisticuffs signalled change. Inactive till late 99, this latest incarnation includes a 3 piece brass section new singer, TV appearances and supports to The Selector and Bad Manners. Signed to Do The Dog Music, and their widely acclaimedium debut CD, rel in May02, is getting air play all over Europe, Venezuela, Brazil and Australia, as well as on BBC Radio 1. Former bands that S.L.A.F members have perfomedium in: Thou Subversives,
Cucumber Fusion, The Pain and Crash 45. Releases – Punctured Shark, EP – Nov99 on Kippertronix, EP – Feb01: Smoke like a Fish, Album – Apr02 on Do the Dog music
Snatch It Back – Cardiff band, who up to 2006 have played around the city for at least 30 years. Line up has changed as members died, but now incl; Dave Dearnaley (gtr), Chris Rees (voc,gtr), Paul Higgins (bass), Ian Davies (drms). Rel LP ‘Live on Broadway’ (1987), followed by ‘Live And Later’ (2002) (website)
Snork Maiden – Newport band, rel LP ‘Eating is Believing’ (Apr03) on Sharp Noodle. (website). More info req’d.
Snowbirds – Band from Roath, Cardiff (c1992). Had track on a Glidge Recs comp. More info req’d.